Child sex abuse victims in North Wales among those regularly missing out on compensation owed to them by perpetrators, an inquiry has concluded.

Survivors of child sex abuse are often re-traumatised during what can be a "frustrating, hostile and ultimately futile" legal battle for justice through the courts, the Independent Inquiry into Child Sexual Abuse (IICSA) said.

Neither the criminal nor civil justice system is able to effectively deliver the redress sought by victims, the panel said in its report on the Accountability and Reparations strand of its wide-ranging investigations.

Evidence heard by the panel showed that just 0.02% of criminal compensation orders (CCOs) - where a person convicted of an offence pays money to the victim for personal injury, loss or damage arising from it - made between 2013 and 2017 were in relation to child sexual abuse cases.

None of the victims who gave evidence to the panel said they had received CCOs at the end of court hearings.

Among its recommendations for improvement, the panel said the Ministry of Justice should consult with the Sentencing Council, the Judicial College, the Crown Prosecution Service and other relevant bodies to make more use of the orders, perhaps through guidance for the judiciary and prosecutors in the Crown Courts and Magistrates' Courts.

The panel said police should "draw the possibility of compensation to a victim's attention and gather the necessary information" if a victim is seeking a CCO.

The panel is still considering proposals to reform the law of limitation in civil proceedings to make it easier for victims and survivors to bring civil claims for non-recent child sexual abuse.

Currently a civil complaint must usually be brought within a limited time period of three years from the abuse or the 18th birthday of the complainant.

The report said: "The evidence which has been heard in this investigation leaves no doubt that none of the avenues for redress which we have examined - civil justice, criminal compensation (CCOs and CICA awards) or support services - is always able to adequately provide the remedies which are sought as accountability and reparations for victims and survivors of sexual abuse."

The report, published on Thursday, also highlighted problems faced by people already scarred by their experiences as children, saying they had to endure decades-long litigation and many felt they faced unfair treatment in court.

The inquiry's investigation considered five key case studies from the 1960s to the present day: North Wales children's homes; Forde Park school in Devon; St Leonard's children's home in London; St Aidan's and St Vincent's children's homes in Cheshire and Merseyside and Stanhope Castle school in County Durham.

Inquiry chairwoman Professor Alexis Jay said: "For victims and survivors of child sexual abuse, the suffering does not stop when the abuse ends. In our investigation we found that the criminal and civil court proceedings for redress can be frustrating, hostile and ultimately futile.

"Many are left retraumatised and deeply unsatisfied with the often lengthy and confusing litigation. Equally concerning is the lack of clear signposting for the compensation and support which survivors could be entitled to.

"The panel and I hope this report and its recommendations can help make seeking redress a less complex and distressing process for extremely vulnerable people."

During 15 days of public hearings last winter, the inquiry heard from 38 witnesses including insurance brokers, lawyers, police officers and victims and survivors.

Among its eight recommendations, the panel calls for increased signposting of criminal and civil compensation and a national register of public liability insurance policies.