THE latest Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) report shows that the Welsh breeding curlew population has fallen by 68 per cent between 1995 and 2017.

As a result of the precipitous decline in breeding numbers, the curlew, long been associated with Welsh upland and farmland, is one of UK’s most pressing conservation issues.

Its decline in Wales is mirrored with an overall decline of 48% across the UK.

BBS data was analysed to look at what might be causing the decline. As a ground nesting species, curlew faces lots of different pressures during the breeding season.

Destruction of peat bogs, afforestation, farmland intensification and land abandonment no doubt affect the availability of breeding habitat for curlew, with predation also adding to the pressure.

Intensive management of lowland grasslands could be exasperating the situation and climate change is also seen as a threat.

It's not good news for Welsh swifts either. Their breeding population is down by 69 per cent over the same period. The reasons for this decline aren’t fully understood but this species almost exclusively nests in buildings.

A loss of nesting space could be having a toll, with many of the holes that swifts use to access our roof spaces for nesting getting blocked as we make our homes more energy efficient.

Providing a nest box under the eaves of a roof can help replace those lost nooks and crannies. Of course, little is known about their migration route and wintering grounds and pressures they might face during this period of their annual life cycle.

It’s not all bad news, great spotted woodpeckers are finding Welsh woodland to their liking and the breeding population increased three-fold between 1995 and 2017.

Sarah Harris, Breeding Bird Survey Organiser at the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO), said, “The sound of the first swift screaming overhead in spring or the bubbling song of a territorial curlew are among the best sounds in birding and always bring a smile to my face.

"It is worrying to see the long-term trends for these species each year and only time will tell what affect our changing climate will have on these birds in the future.

"Without the efforts of hundreds of volunteers in Wales, we would not have these figures to help prompt further research and conservation action."